# Confirmation bias
Confirmation bias is a type of Cognitive bias where there is a tendency for people to find an information to confirm their own preconception. We will search for an information that supports our own arguments, rather than the information that will challenge what we already have in our mind.
Ahrens, How to Take Smart Notes (p. 79).
Confirmation bias is a subtle but major force. As the psychologist Raymond Nickerson puts it: “If on were to attempt to identify a single problematic aspect of human reasons that deserves attention above all others, the confirmation bias would have to be among the candidates for consideration" (Nickerson 198, 175)
- Zettelkasten helps counter confirmation bias
- One of the recommended approach to writing is the top-down approach. This approach starts from a hypotheses, then continued by finding supporting references and data. Unfortunately, the top-down approach makes it too easy for us to neglect the need of disconfirming information, because the approach induces Confirmation bias. Even worse, when a disconfirming information is found, you may consider it as a threat to the success of your writing. You need disconfirming data and ideas to develop good arguments in your writing.